The Williams driver had already been given a three-place grid penalty at Spa for blocking Nico Hulkenberg in qualifying.
Maldonado rejoined, only to collide with Timo Glock's Marussia at the restart, ending his race.
Although Glock was able to continue, the stewards ruled that Maldonado's actions in the clash deserved a five-place penalty.
They also bestowed an additional five-place drop as he had been unable to take the usual drivethrough penalty for a jump-start in the race due to his early retirement.
"The driver failed to finish the race so the usual penalty for a false start could not be imposed," said an official statement.
Maldonado accepted the blame for the start error.
"I made a slight mistake at the start because the clutch slipped out of my hands before the red light switched off," he said.