The Saxo Bank rider started the day with the race leader's yellow jersey but his chain jumped off shortly after he launched an attack near the end of the 19.3-km ascent to the Port de Bales.
The Luxembourg rider said he felt Contador and the other riders should have waited.
"I was feeling very good and I had a mechanical problem, I lost time, it happens, I won't cry, I lost the jersey but it's not over," Schleck told reporters. "My stomach is full of anger and I will take my revenge."
"It's not really nice but what can I say," added Schleck, who said Contador, Menchov and Sanchez would not win the "fair play prize" for their move.
The Schleck controversy was top of the Twitter worldwide trending.
"It's not over, the Tour is just starting, it motivates me for the Tourmalet (Thursday's stage with a mountain top finish).
"I don't think I would have wanted to take the jersey in such fashion," the Luxmebourg rider said,
Contador, who waited for Schleck when he crashed in the second stage to Spa, said he did not see the incident.
"I was told there was an incident but when I attacked I was not aware of it," the 27-year-old rider told reporters.
"When I got the word it had happened, it was too late, we already had gained a lot of time."
"Fair play or not, it's hard to tell," said Schleck's Saxo Bank manager Bjarne Riis. "He (Contador) waited a bit at the beginning, then, I don't know. Too bad."
(Editing by John Mehaffey; To query or comment on this story email email@example.com)