Cycling is one of only five sports to have featured at every Olympics, but the modern contests bear little resemblance to the first.
In 1896 the six events ranged from a time trial over 333 and a third metres to a 12-hour race in which the only two cyclists to finish completed more than 300km. The sole cycling event at the 1912 Games in Stockholm was a time trial over 315km, which remains the longest race in the sport's history at the Olympics.
New events have been introduced, including the Madison, Keirin, and BMX, and some have been discarded, including tandem races and the demonstration sport of bicycle polo.
The schedule for London will feature BMX, mountain bike and road events for men and women. The track programme includes five events each for men and women — the sprint, team sprint, team pursuit, Keirin and Omnium.
In the Keirin, riders follow a pacing motorcycle at the beginning of the race and then sprint for the finish line. In the Omnium, which is new to the schedule, riders are awarded points for their performances across six disciplines. The winner is the rider with the lowest total.
France, who won four golds at the first Games, still lead the cycling medal table but there have been noteworthy performances by other nations.
Italy won five out of six golds as hosts in 1960; Dutchwoman Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel won three gold medals in Sydney and a fourth at Athens 2004; and Great Britain's haul of 14 cycling medals in Beijing included eight golds.
In those Games, Bradley Wiggins won two golds to become the most successful man in Olympic cycling history, while Chris Hoy won three, becoming the most successful British performer at a single Games since the swimmer Henry Taylor 100 years before - earning a knighthood along the way.