The 34-year-olds beat the Dutch pairing of Robin Haase and Igor Sijsling 6-3 6-4 to break the record of 12 grand slams they had shared with Australians John Newcombe and Tony Roche.
"Obviously it feels really good to have that record and to be a part of history feels really special," Mike Bryan said.
"We weren't thinking much about it on court but once we look back on our careers it will be fun to see what we have done. It's a big record."
The left-handed Bob Bryan served out for victory to seal their sixth Australian Open title together.
It was the brothers' 84th career title and their second consecutive grand-slam triumph, after their win at the U.S. Open in September.
- Sports & Recreation
- Igor Sijsling
- Mike Bryan
- Robin Haase