Chicago's Andrew Shaw, who was rammed into the boards during the first period of a physical encounter that also saw Vancouver's Daniel Sedin knocked out of the game, hit back with an overtime game-winner at 2:42 to give the Blackhawks the win.
"This is the hockey I always wanted to play," rookie Shaw said. "It was a character win, a team win. It took everyone in the dressing room to win that game.
"It's unbelievable. I love it."
The result left Chicago (42-25-8) sixth in the West, three points behind Vancouver (43-21-9), who are second seed in the conference and hold a 10-point advantage in the Northwest Division.
In the latest battle between two teams who have met in the last three postseasons, Jannik Hansen gave the visitors the lead 27 seconds into the game before Chicago's Patrick Kane beat Canucks goaltender Roberto Luongo to tie the score early in the second.
Luongo made 35 saves in the loss while Chicago's Corey Crawford earned the win after saving 23 of 24 shots.
Vancouver have lost eight of their last 11 and were left fuming after Sedin took an elbow to the head from the Blackhawks' Duncan Keith.
"That's not a part of hockey you like to see and it shows, I think, a little lack of respect," said Canucks captain Henrik Sedin, Daniel's identical twin brother.