The defending champions remain five points clear at the top of the table, albeit having played one extra match than the rest of their rivals.
Things went awry for the visitors from the start, the team seeing themselves reduced to 14-men in just the sixth minute of the match when Yann David was sent to the bin.
However, Toulouse managed to withstand the period of pressure from Bordeaux and even found themselves in the lead when Lionel Beauxis kicked three early penalties.
Despite the France fly-half enjoying a successful night with the boot, his opposite number Camille Lopez was also on form and gave the hosts a narrow 12-9 lead heading into the interval, with four successful kicks of his own.
Beauxis put Toulouse level early in the second half before Bordeaux once again snuck ahead courtesy of another two successful kicks from Lopez.
Yves Donguy looked to have stolen the win for Toulouse when he crossed over with just five minutes left on the clock.
But Beauxis’s conversion kick, which would have seen Toulouse go ahead, went wide and Bordeaux, ninth in the standings, held on for the win.