The Germany U21 centre-back's 93rd minute goal pulled the visitors back on level terms for a third time on the night at the Rhein-Neckar Arena.
The result dragged the Bundesliga debutants off the bottom of the table, with Wolfsburg sinking to the foot on goal difference in their place.
Roberto Firmino opened the scoring for Hoffenheim in the eighth minute before Zoltan Stieber levelled on 39.
The hosts went ahead again in the 67th minute courtesy of Joselu only for Edgar Prib to hit back and level things up at 2-2.
A second from Joselu on 89 minutes appeared to have sealed victory for Hoffenheim, but Sobiech swooped with the last kick of the game deep in injury time to give Greuther Fuerth their fifth point of the season so far.
Hoffenheim remain in 12th place.