Williams made physical contact with referee Cheryl Flores, after he jumped up in anger after being called for an offensive blocking foul while defending Zach LaVine in the fourth quarter.
The Celtics forward was immediately given a technical foul and ejected from the game.
Williams had to be restrained by teammate Derrick White, before being escorted off the court as he yelled back towards the court as he headed towards the locker room.
NBA executive vice president, head of basketball operations Joe Dumars announced the suspension for "recklessly making contact with and directing inappropriate language toward a game official" on Wednesday.
Williams will serve the one-game suspension in Friday's game against the Cleveland Cavaliers.
Darius Garland is in contention to return for the Cavs in that game, having been out since suffering a left eye injury in their season opener against the Toronto Raptors.
The Cavs' All-Star participated in team shootaround on Wednesday while wearing goggles for protection but missed the 103-92 win over the Orlando Magic later that day.