Chinshanlo set a world record of 131 kg for the clean and jerk - the second of two styles of lift required in the Olympic competition - which when added to her earlier 95 kg in the snatch gave her an Olympic record total of 226 kg.
The 19 year-old saw off stiff competition from Taiwan's Hsu Shu-Ching who lifted a total of 219 kg, while the bronze medal went to Cristina Iovu of Moldova who tied with Hsu on 219 kg but was placed third because her bodyweight was 380 grams higher.
Soon after winning her country's first women's weightlifting gold Chinshanlo said she received a personal visit from the Kazakhstan president, Nursultan Nazarbayev.
"Just now the president came and congratulated me, but I will not tell you how much money he will give me because it is a secret and I am afraid I will be robbed," she said, while laughing and smiling as fans draped in Kazakhstan flags sang loudly on their way out of the 6,000-seat ExCel arena.
Chinshanlo sat in third place at the halfway stage after lifting 95 kg in the one-movement snatch lift but excelled in the two-phase clean and jerk, adding one kilogram to her own world record, set at the world championships in 2011.
A final attempt at a 135 kg clean and jerk would have set an overall world record total, but she was unable to fully complete the lift.
"The last lift I had plan to break the (world) record but I failed. I am a little disappointed," she said.
Turkey's Aylin Dasdelen had been expected to win her country's first weightlifting medal of the games but was unable to complete a clean and jerk and left the stage wincing after two attempts. She later announced her retirement.
Earlier, China's hopes of continuing their dominance in the women's weightlifting events were dashed when teenager Zhou Jun crashed out of the 53 kg class group B session without completing a single lift.
1. Zulfiya Chinshanlo (Kazakhstan) 95 131 WR 226 OR
2. Hsu Shu-Ching (Taiwan) 96 123 219
3. Cristina Iovu (Moldova) 99 120 219
4. Citra Febrianti (Indonesia) 91 115 206
5. Iulia Paratova (Ukraine) 91 108 199
6. Rusmeris Villar (Colombia) 87 109 196
7. Aleksandra Klejnowska (Poland) 84 112 196
8. Nguyen Thi Thuy (Vietnam) 85 110 195
9. Yu Weili (Hong Kong, China) 90 105 195
10. Inmara Henrriquez (Venezuela) 81 113 194
11. Julia Rohde (Germany) 85 108 193
12. Kanae Yagi (Japan) 82 109 191
13. Joanna Lochowska (Poland) 84 107 191
14. Dika Toua (Papua New Guinea) 79 95 174
15. Helena Wong (Singapore) 61 73 134
Yuderqui Contreras (Dominican Republic) DNF
Zhou Jun (China) DNF
Aylin Dasdelen (Turkey) 91 DNF
- world record