The 31-year-old Croatia international has joined on a free transfer, signing a one-year deal. He had been a free agent since his contract with Hamburg recently expired.
He told his new club's official website: "I like the Premier League and it has always been one of my wishes to come here."
Petric also played in Switzerland with FC Baden, Basel and Grasshoppers as well as Bundesliga side Borussia Dortmund, before joining Hamburg where he worked under current Cottagers boss Martin Jol.
He added: "I played with Hamburg against the club two years ago in the Europa League.
"It was very nice to play at Craven Cottage with a fantastic crowd and I have enjoyed a good relationship with every member of the club I have met since.
"I'm very happy to be part of what is happening at Fulham. The club is doing very well and that was why I decided to come here.
"I know the manager well and I know that he is always looking to strengthen his attacking options - and I hope that we can do even better next season."