Kilbane, 35, arrives at the Ricoh Arena after being released by npower Championship club Hull.
"Kevin brings bags of experience to our squad. You only have to look at the clubs Kevin has played for and his record at international level to know his quality," said Coventry manager Andy Thorn.
"He brings bags of experience to our squad and he will complement the younger players we have here and will help bring them on.
"Not only will he be an asset on the pitch, he will be a big player in the dressing room too so I am really pleased we have acted quickly to bring him in."
Kilbane, who has 110 international caps, began his career with Preston and has also played for West Brom, Sunderland, Everton and Wigan.