Pietersen is undergoing treatment on a calf problem ahead of the third Ashes Test which starts at Old Trafford next Thursday, so there is a chance that his place in the batting line-up could become available.
Several names have been mentioned as possible replacements, such as Ravi Bopara and Yorkshire's Gary Ballance, but with Taylor trading Nottinghamshire for Sussex at England's request, the 23-year-old would seem to be next in line.
"We would like to thank Nottinghamshire CCC and Sussex CCC for their support and understanding in allowing Nottinghamshire batsman James Taylor to play for Sussex against Australia in the three-day tour match beginning on Friday," said England coach Andy Flower in a statement.
"This will provide James with a valuable opportunity to play in a longer format of the game while we consider our options ahead of the third Investec Ashes Test next week. Kevin Pietersen is continuing his recovery from a calf strain and a decision about his availability for the Test will made nearer the time."
The three-day game starts at Hove on Friday, with Australia looking to build up some confidence after two demoralising losses in the first and second Tests.
Taylor is no stranger to the Test environment having made two appearances last summer including a 147-run stand with Pietersen against South Africa at Headingley.
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