The Sojasun rider finished the 2.55km Luxembourg city course in three minutes and 42 seconds, 1s quicker than his 2012 time.
The Frenchman, 33, started 25th of 130 so had a long wait to see if he had managed to add to his 2007, 2010 and 2012 time trial wins.
Danny Poppel was agonisingly close, the 19-year-old Vacansoleil-DCM rider finishing just 1s short of victory.
Engoulvent’s Sojasun team-mate Jonathan Hivert was just behind in third.
- Sports & Recreation