The 30-year-old Briton took the lead with two laps to go, having recovered from an apparent stumble, and had the strength in the home straight to hold off Jeilan and take victory in 27 minutes 21.71 seconds.
“It was very exciting,” Farah said. “Two years ago almost exactly the same thing happened at this time.
“I knew Jeilan was capable, so it was just important I had something left.
“To be honest with you, with the last lap I could see he was there and I was thinking, ‘God, I’ve got to make this lap worth it’.
“At 200m again I could see him trying down the right side. I was thinking on the home straight ‘not again, not again, not again’.
“Two years ago Jeilan did wonderfully and ran a great race. But ever since then something has been missing and after London you just want to get that feeling again.”
Farah went on to defend his 5,000m crown at the Luzhniki Stadium and retained both global titles two years later in Beijing.
He went on to complete the double again at the 2016 Olympics in Rio, and in 2017 was knighted and named BBC Sports Personality of the Year.