The Australian was trailing 4-3 in the first set to the Kazakh when she threw in the towel with a wrist injury.
It is the same problem that led to her withdrawal just nine minutes into her opening-round clash at Indian Wells last month.
Dokic's compatriot Jarmila Gajdosova also bowed out of the tournament, the 16th seed falling 6-4 2-6 6-4 to Swiss qualifier Stefanie Voegele.
But there was better news for Australia with Anastasia Rodionova's 6-2 2-6 6-1 win over qualifier Melanie Czink which set up a second round meeting with clay-court specialist Anabel Medina Garrigues.
The Spanish world number 27 beat qualifier Melanie Oudin 6-4 4-6 6-0 to book her place in the next round.
In other results on the opening day of play in South Carolina, 11th seed Christina McHale was sent packing by Aleksandra Wozniak, the Canadian winning 7-5 5-7 6-4.
Polona Hercog, the 14th seed eased past Japanese veteran Kimiko Date-Krumm 6-4 6-3 while 15th seed Chanelle Scheepers was upset 6-1 1-6 6-4 by Argentine Paula Ormaechea.
Serena Williams and Samantha Stosur are among the seeds in action when play continues on Tuesday.