The Australian was trailing 4-3 in the first set to the Kazakh when she threw in the towel with a wrist injury.
It is the same problem that led to her withdrawal just nine minutes into her opening-round clash at Indian Wells last month.
Dokic's compatriot Jarmila Gajdosova also bowed out of the tournament, the 16th seed falling 6-4 2-6 6-4 to Swiss qualifier Stefanie Voegele .
But there was better news for Australia with Anastasia Rodionova 's 6-2 2-6 6-1 win over qualifier Melanie Czink which set up a second round meeting with clay-court specialist Anabel Medina Garrigues .
The Spanish world number 27 beat qualifier Melanie Oudin 6-4 4-6 6-0 to book her place in the next round.
In other results on the opening day of play in South Carolina, 11th seed Christina McHale was sent packing by Aleksandra Wozniak , the Canadian winning 7-5 5-7 6-4.
Polona Hercog , the 14th seed eased past Japanese veteran Kimiko Date-Krumm 6-4 6-3 while 15th seed Chanelle Scheepers was upset 6-1 1-6 6-4 by Argentine Paula Ormaechea .
Serena Williams and Samantha Stosur are among the seeds in action when play continues on Tuesday.