Derbyshire Police said they were called to the Post Mill Centre, South Normanton, at 10.17pm on Friday night.
The youth, who is from Ripley, near Derby, was given medical treatment at the bout but was pronounced dead on arrival at Kings Mill Hospital, in Mansfield, Nottinghamshire.
Formal identification has yet to take place and a post-mortem examination is due to be carried out to establish the cause of death.
The centre's website stated that an "amateur open boxing show" was being held at the venue between 7pm and 11pm that night, organised by the South Normanton School of Boxing.
The Board of England Boxing said in a statement on Saturday: "It is with great sadness that the Board of England Boxing, the governing body for boxing in England, can confirm that a boxer died last night following a bout at an England Boxing-sanctioned event in Derby.
"We are extremely saddened by this and would like to express our sincere condolences to the family and friends of the person involved in this terrible and shocking incident.
Read the full article on eurosport.co.uk: Amateur boxer, 17, dies after collapsing in ring