The news was announced by Manchester United, one of his former clubs where the 45-year-old is now an ambassador.
A statement read:
Manchester United Ambassador Andrew Cole has undergone a kidney transplant operation at Manchester Royal Infirmary as part of his treatment for a condition called Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis. During his recuperation, Andrew will be taking a break from his role as Manchester United Ambassador. Andrew and his family would like to thank the club and fans for their support. They also request that he can continue with his treatment in private, and ask that their privacy is respected.
Cole suffered kidney failure in June 2014 as a result of contracting an airborne virus.
One of the side-effects of Cole's condition, which causes scarring of the kidney and impacts on levels of protein in the body, is weight gain.
Speaking to BBC Sport in February 2016, the former Newcastle forward reflected on the issues he now faced.
Read the full article on eurosport.co.uk: Ex-England and Manchester United striker Andrew Cole has kidney transplant