The 47-year-old has been withdrawn from the Sky Bet League One game while referees' body, the Professional Game Match Officials Limited, reviews Wednesday's penalty incident, Press Association Sport understands.
Stroud disallowed Matt Ritchie's first-half penalty in their 1-0 win over Burton and awarded the Brewers an indirect free-kick rather than ask for the spot-kick to be retaken after Dwight Gayle encroached.
Rules of the game indicated Newcastle should have been allowed a second chance from 12 yards and the PGMOL confirmed Stroud had made an error.
It is not yet clear how long the review will take or when Stroud will next officiate and the statement from PGMOL on Wednesday evening said the referee had apologised for his mistake.
"In the Championship game between Newcastle United and Burton Albion, referee Keith Stroud awarded Newcastle a penalty in the 29th minute," the statement read.
"As Matt Ritchie took the kick, Dwight Gayle encroached in the penalty area. An indirect free-kick was awarded to Burton, but the Laws of the Game state that the penalty kick should have been retaken.
"Unfortunately, the referee has misapplied the law. Keith and his team are understandably upset at the lapse in concentration and apologise for the mistake."
Read the full article on eurosport.co.uk: Penalty blunder referee Keith Stroud won't take charge of match this weekend