The Finn held provisional pole position after the first runs in Q3, but failed to improve on his second attempt and was jumped by Ferrari team-mate Sebastian Vettel after making a mistake at the final corner pushing to make up for lost time.
The gap between the pair was just 0.059s at the end of qualifying, meaning Raikkonen could have taken pole with even a slender improvement had the tyres been as good as they were on the first run.
"We just had traffic on the outlap on the last set and couldn't make the tyres work as well as the first run," said Raikkonen, who has not started on pole since the 2008 French Grand Prix.
"It was a bit more tricky. I tried to get it back in the last corner and it didn't pay off. I am happier than previous qualifying [sessions], but we had all the tools to be in the front today.
"One-two for the team is not bad."
The French round in 2008 was also the last time Ferrari locked out the front row.
Vettel admitted that he had an untidy run on his first attempt in Q3, which put the pressure on for his second run as he attempted to improve on third place.
"I had a good start to the session and was feeling reasonably comfortable, and in Q2 lost lost the rhythm on my final run, which would give me the idea for the first of Q3," said Vettel.
Read the full article on eurosport.co.uk: Problems on final run cost Raikkonen pole