The Frenchman, who is on course to win a second successive Premier League title after also being part of the Leicester side which upset the odds last season, secured the most votes from his fellow players.
He saw off competition from Chelsea team-mate Eden Hazard - who won the award in 2015 - plus Tottenham's Harry Kane, Everton striker Romelu Lukaku, Zlatan Ibrahimovic of Manchester United and Arsenal's Alexis Sanchez.
Kante was presented with the award at the Grosvenor Hotel in London on Sunday evening. Tottenham midfielder Dele Alli won the Young Player prize for the second successive season, Manchester City's Lucy Bronze won the Women's Player of the Year award for the second time having also won it in 2014, and Birmingham's Jess Carter topped the voting in the Women's Young Player category.
Former England captain David Beckham received the PFA's Merit award for his contribution to the game.
Kante has played a key role in Chelsea's surge to the top of the league this season and is renowned as a tireless box-to-box competitor who helps break up opposition attacks and initiate them for his own side.
And he is set to become the first player to achieve the distinction of winning successive Premier League titles with different clubs if Chelsea can hold off Tottenham in this season's championship race.
Blues manager Antonio Conte joked after another commanding display by Kante in a win over West Ham last month that he is struggling to find a fault in his game:
He made five mistakes. He has to improve in this. He has to improve. I am joking. But I have to find one situation to tell him to improve. He's playing really well. He has great stamina, great quality and we are working to improve that quality. I'm pleased for him.
Kante is modest about his outstanding ability, as former Leicester director of football Steve Walsh revealed.
Read the full article on eurosport.co.uk: Kante named PFA Player of the Year