The world number two made the third maximum break of his career during the 5-3 victory over Tian in Beijing.
Trump knocked an impressive sixth red into the middle to keep the 147 dream alive as he led the tie 3-1.
And it was a nervy cut into the corner for the final black having played around the table with the pink off its spot and near the baulk cushion.
Trump did go on to lose the next two frames, but a break of 62 helped the 27-year-old reach the last eight.
"I've had a lot of good chances recently and it was nice to make a 147 on the TV table. The next frame I potted a good ball to get in," Trump told the World Snooker website.
"I then split the pack well but unfortunately the red went in. I probably would have made another century if that didn't happen, you need a bit of luck in those situations.
"After that he played well and things like that can change games, so I'm happy to get through."
Trump will now face Hossein Vafaei in the quarters, who beat Rory McLeod 5-2 in the third round.
Meanwhile, Shaun Murphy made light work of Michael White, winning 5-1 to set up a clash against Mark Williams, who edged out fellow former world champion John Higgins 5-4.
Williams had trailed the match 4-1, but then reeled off four frames in a row - capping off the victory with a break of 79 in the decider.
Read the full article on eurosport.co.uk: Trump secures maximum break en route to China Open quarters