After building an 8-1 lead over Saengkham in the previous session, the tournament newcomer looked to be staging a comeback, winning three of the following four frames.
However, Robertson silenced the uprising with a break of 76 to go through to the next round, where he will face Marco Fu.
"I'm very happy to get through. The damage was done yesterday when clearly I took full advantage of his nerves on his debut and I seemed to punish all his mistakes," said Robertson.
"Overall it was a very professional performance. Today he came out without any pressure on him and knocked in a lot of great balls and he nicked a few back, but from 8-1 you've pretty much got to not turn up to get beaten from there.
"Today I was maybe little bit slack on a few shots but after the interval I regained my focus and was determined to finish it off."
Neil Robertson 10-4 Noppon Saengkham
83-12 (76), 83-6 (77), 90-0 (61), 68-48, 8-77, 113-0 (113), 65-60, 59-25, 62-26, 30-68, 15-65 (54), 74-1 (70), 22-77, 76-0 (76)
Read the full article on eurosport.co.uk: World Championship: Robertson sees off Saengkham