Arsenal winger Oxlade-Chamberlain and Norwich City goalkeeper Ruddy are the two uncapped players named in Roy Hodgson's 23-man squad which will be captained by Steven Gerrard.
But Ferdinand's 81-cap England career looks to have come to an end. The 33-year-old last featured for his country in the Euro 2012 qualifier against Switzerland in June 2011 with Hodgson confirming he has been omitted for "footballing reasons".
Ferdinand, 33, said he was "gutted" by the snub.
"Absolutely loved playing for England. To say I'm gutted is an understatement of the highest order," he wrote on Twitter.
Canaries custodian Ruddy, 25, is preferred to Scott Carson as back-up to Joe Hart by new manager Hodgson with Rob Green the other goalkeeper included.
Ruddy, who is due to get married on June 2, has been given special leave by the FA to marry his partner Laura on the day England play Belgium in a friendly at Wembley.
Tottenham's PFA Young Player of the Year Kyle Walker is missing through injury but Hodgson has also excluded Manchester City's Micah Richards with Glen Johnson seemingly first-choice right-back with Phil Jones as back-up.
John Terry is included despite losing the England captaincy in February after being sent to a trial on July 9 charged with racially abusing Queens Park Rangers defender and Ferdinand's brother Anton. He has pleaded not gulity and is likely to partner either Chelsea team-mate Gary Cahill or Manchester City title-winner Joleon Lescott in the heart of defence.
The midfield quartet who played against Germany in the World Cup second round thumping - Gareth Barry, Frank Lampard, James Milner and Gerrard - are all included as is Scott Parker despite the Spurs schemer missing the end of the season with an Achilles problem.
There is no international return for Paul Scholes but Manchester United team-mate Ashley Young is named and will compete for one of the wide berths with 18-year-old Oxlade-Chamberlain, who has made just six Premier League starts, and fellow Gunner Theo Walcott.
Stewart Downing is also on the plane despite an inconsistent first season with Liverpool as is Anfield colleague Andy Carroll who forces his way into the squad after a late burst of form in a campaign in which he scored just four Premier League goals.
Jermain Defoe and Danny Welbeck are the other striking options for Hodgson with Wayne Rooney missing the first two games because of suspension.
Aston Villa's Darren Bent, who has been sidelined since February with ruptured ankle ligaments, and Stoke City striker Peter Crouch do not make the trip.
Five players are on stand-by: Birmingham City's teenage goalkeeper Jack Butland, who spent the season on-loan at Cheltenham, Everton defender Phil Jagielka, Liverpool midfielder Jordan Henderson, Manchester City winger Adam Johnson and Chelsea forward Daniel Sturridge.
Butland, an Academy graduate, is yet to even make a first-team appearance for Birmingham but is already England Under-21 keeper and is a strong contender to make the Great Britain squad for this summer's Olympic Games.
England begin their campaign against France on June 11 in Donetsk before travelling to Kiev to play Sweden on June 15 and returning to Ukraine to face the co-hosts on June 19.
England face Norway in Oslo in a warm-up game on May 26 when Hodgson makes his debut as manager before they face Belgium at Wembley.