Blake joined Rovers from Bolton on a free transfer last summer but has struggled to command a regular place in the first team, with nine of his 14 appearances for the south Yorkshire club coming from the bench.
The 37-year-old's last start came in the Johnstone's Paint Trophy defeat to Crewe at the beginning of December.
A statement on Doncaster's official club website said: "Both parties have come to a mutual agreement for the early settlement of his contract.
"Everyone at the club would like to thank Robbie for his time with Rovers and wish him all the best for the future."
- Sports & Recreation