The two clubs vetoed the proposals at an SPL meeting at Hampden on Monday, with a majority of 11-1 required to send the plans to the Scottish Football League.
The plans would have seen both league bodies merge in a 12-12-18 structure with a pyramid system below. The top two leagues would then split into three after 22 games in a bid to generate extra revenue, which would have been split more equitably with current First Division clubs.
Rangers, as associate members of the SFL, would not have been entitled to vote on the issue but have made their own stance on reconstruction clear in the past.
Ibrox chief executive Charles Green - who attended St Mirren's home SPL game against Celtic on March 31 - has previously proposed an alternative 14-14-14 structure.
Rangers were opposed to the 12-12-18 format which, if introduced for the coming season, would have seen the Irn-Bru Third Division champions remain in Scottish football's bottom tier.
A club spokesperson said: "We note the outcome of today's SPL vote on League reconstruction.
"Rangers have already openly talked about what we believe were constructive proposals and hope that these will be considered at some point in the future.
"The vast majority of supporters did not want 12-12-18 and the two clubs who voted against this should not be singled out for criticism. They stood up for what they and their fans believe."
- Sports & Recreation