The incident occurred in the 74th minute of Sunday's 2-2 draw at Anfield, in which Suarez went on to score a 96th-minute equaliser.
Suarez could face an extended ban after the FA claimed the standard three-match ban for violent conduct was "clearly insufficient".
An FA statement read: "The FA has charged Liverpool forward Luis Suarez with violent conduct.
"The charge follows an incident with Chelsea's Branislav Ivanovic in yesterday's fixture at Anfield [21 April 2013].
"The incident was not seen by the match officials and has therefore been retrospectively reviewed.
"It is alleged that the conduct of Suarez constitutes violent conduct and it is the FA's contention that the standard punishment of three matches that would otherwise apply is clearly insufficient in these circumstances.
"Suarez has until 6pm on Tuesday 23 April to respond to the charge, thereafter an Independent Regulatory Commission will be convened this Wednesday, 24 April."
- Luis Suarez