The 38-year-old joins the Tigers' cause for a first Premier League campaign since 2010 having spent 20 years at St James' Park.
A statement published by Hull's official Twitter feed read: "We are delighted to announce the signing of Steve Harper on a one-year deal #WelcometoHull".
Harper will provide competition for Scottish keeper Allan McGregor, signed from Besiktas earlier this month, with Bosnian stopper Eldin Jakupovic another option for Tigers boss Steve Bruce.
Hull becomes Harper's second permanent club in two decades. The Seaham native joined Newcastle in 1993 but spent time his first five years with the Magpies on separate loan spells with Bradford, Gateshead, Stockport and Hartlepool.
He began to threaten first-team regular Shay Given at the turn of the century, playing in Newcastle's FA Cup final defeat to Manchester United in 1999 and notably keeping a clean sheet against Juventus in a Champions League group game in 2002.
After finally becoming the undisputed number-one choice on Tyneside during Newcastle's season in the Championship, Harper signed a new contract in 2009 but two years later he found himself at Brighton on loan.
He played his last game for Newcastle - acting as captain - in a 1-0 Premier League defeat to Arsenal in May and despite reports suggesting he was ready to retire, he attracted the interest of Hull, who have now handed the veteran another stab at top-flight football.
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- Steve Harper
- Premier League