The 44-year-old needed a second round of surgery in December following an initial operation to remove a tumour from his saliva glands in November 2011 and his assistant Jordi Roura took charge while he relocated to the United States for a course of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Vilanova arrived in Barcelona early on Tuesday and returned home to rest, Barca said in a statement on their website.
Roura would take charge of Tuesday evening's training session, when most of the squad will be absent due to the international break, and Vilanova would "gradually" rejoin the first team, they added.
Barca's next match is at Celta Vigo on Saturday and they play at Paris St Germain in their Champions League last eight, first leg on April 2.
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