Van der Garde, who had qualified at the head of the Caterham/Marussia pack, reported on the radio that his right rear wheel did not feel right as soon as he left his lap 20 pitstop.
The team asked him to bring the car back to the pits, but it shed the wheel at Turn 10.
The stewards said Caterham should have told van der Garde to park immediately and therefore deserved a punishment.
A statement from the officials said: "the team instructed the driver to drive the car back to the pits even though they were aware of the wheel not being attached correctly."
Van der Garde made it back to the pits on three wheels but his car had incurred too much damage to continue.
He had been running 19th prior to the incident.
His team-mate Charles Pic still won the tail-end battle by beating Jules Bianchi's Marussia to 17th.
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