The Australian completed a remarkable turnaround for the beleaguered world champion team by holding off Kevin Magnussen's McLaren to finish second on the road in Melbourne.
But the FIA has noted that Ricciardo's Renault-engined Red Bull exceeded the maximum permitted fuel-flow rate of 100kg/h "consistently" during the race.
An FIA statement said: "During the race car #3 has exceeded consistently the maximum allowed fuel flow of 100kg/h."
If found guilty, this would put Red Bull in breach of article 5.1.4 of the 2014 technical regulations.
Race director Charlie Whiting said on Thursday that there would be a zero tolerance policy towards this rule, which means Ricciardo faces likely disqualification from his career-best result in F1.
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