Gabriel was a surprise call-up for the tour but impressed on his debut at Lord's, returning three for 60 in the first innings and adding the prize scalp of Kevin Pietersen as England chased victory on the final day. But he managed just five overs in that second innings before leaving the field with back spasms.
Having been assessed by the tourists' medical team ahead of Friday's second Test at Trent Bridge, Gabriel has now been told to fly home.
West Indies team physiotherapist C.J. Clark said: "Shannon made the complaint late in the first Test against England and scans conducted following the match showed a stress reaction in the lower spine.
"He was subsequently ruled out of the second Test and, after further consultation, we feel that to prevent this injury developing any further it is in Shannon's best interest for him to return to T&T for rest and rehabilitation to ensure he is fully fit when selected for West Indies in the future."
Best, 30, has 14 Test caps and 12 one-day international appearances to his name, but last represented the Windies in 2009.