The 35-year-old tested positive for the stimulant methylhexaneamine on February 8, the International Ice Hockey Federation said on its website.
Mikhalyov, who plays for Dynamo Minsk of the Continental Hockey League, "is barred from club and international play pending a final disciplinary decision", the IIHF said in a statement.
Belarus failed to qualify for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi after finishing second behind Slovenia in Group F.
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