The Liverpool forward, who created Frank Lampard's equaliser, was carried off on a stretcher in the first half at Wembley with what England manager Roy Hodgson thought was ligament damage.
"He's not going to Brazil," Hodgson said. "He had a good start and we were sad to lose him.
"He hadn't played for a while and was carrying a slight injury. I fear it will keep him out for a few weeks."
Hodgson is running out of attacking firepower for the prestigious game against Brazil at the Maracana Stadium in Rio de Janeiro.
Andy Carroll was already ruled out through injury and with Danny Welbeck also not fully fit, Hodgson may have no option but to play Wayne Rooney and Jermain Defoe, who came on for Sturridge against Ireland, against Brazil.
"We've got to hope that Welbeck will recover and Defoe will get fitter in the coming days," Hodgson said.
"It will be difficult to get someone in now so we will bite the bullet and accept that we are short up front and look at other options."
- Sports & Recreation
- Frank Lampard
- Danny Welbeck
- Jermain Defoe