The Slovakian goalkeeper signed in the summer after Dean Henderson was allowed to join Nottingham Forest, but only made two appearances at Old Trafford.
Both came in the Carabao Cup as Dubravka played understudy to David De Gea, although he was left out of the squad that beat Wolves on New Year’s Eve as Tom Heaton made the bench.
On Sunday, Newcastle confirmed the recall having been allowed to take up the option with the opening of the January transfer window.
Dubravka is set to take up a role as back-up to Nick Pope with Karl Darlow’s future now uncertain, as well as that of Loris Karius whose short-term deal expires this month.
A Man United statement read: “We would like to thank Martin for his contribution during his time with our club, and wish him all the best for the future.”
Newcastle sit third in the Premier League table, two points clear of the Red Devils. In November, Eddie Howe spoke glowingly of Dubravaka during his loan spell away.
He said: “All I’ll say is that I love Martin. He did brilliantly for us last year, he’s an outstanding goalkeeper. I’ll have a chat with him at the right time.”