Twice Olympic silver medallist Mirjam Ott steered the Swiss to their third world crown, and their first since 1983, with a nerveless display in her sixth appearance at the championship in Albeta province.
Switzerland trailed 6-5 going into the 10th final end, with the lead having changed hands six times.
However Ott, faced with a precision hit and stay to score two for the title, made them to secure the victory.
"It feels just great, really great, we’re so emotional," she said. "We’ve worked so hard and I’ve been waiting a long time and we finally did it.
"I’m so happy for the team. It is really great to win in Canada - the crowd were cheering for us and for good shots."
She added that the win, in front of more than 4,000 spectators, could boost the sport in her home country.
"This means a lot back in Switzerland," she said. "Usually there is only interest in curling for the Olympic Games, but this might make a difference."
Swedish skip Margaretha Sigfridsson has now lost two World Championship finals.
"It was a really good game but we feel sad, of course," she said. "We needed to do a little bit more - what we had wasn’t enough."
Scottish skip Eve Muirhead meanwhile won the Frances Brodie Award, which recognises sportsmanship and ability and is voted for by the players at the tournament.
Teams earn Olympic qualifying points at these and the 2013 Worlds, with the top seven - hosts Russia receive an automatic entry and are therefore ignored - competing at Sochi 2014. Scotland's points are taken by Britain.
An additional two nations will compete in Russia at an Olympic qualifying event to be held in December 2013. All nations that competed at the 2011, 2012 and 2013 Worlds are eligible for this if they have not already secured their spot.
Czech Republic 1
1. Switzerland 10-4 GOLD
2. Sweden 9-4 SILVER
3. Canada 9-5 BRONZE
4. Korea 9-5
5. USA 7-5
6. Scotland 6-5
7. Germany 5-6
8. Denmark 5-6
9. Russia 4-7
10. Italy 3-8
11. China 3-8
12. Czech Republic 2-9