The scrum-half was one of four changes to the squad that beat Samoa in the final of the four nations tournament in June that also featured Italy and Scotland.
Japan-based Du Preez has not played for the Springboks since 2011 but has been drafted back into the set-up by coach Heyneke Meyer as he begins preparations for the 2015 World Cup in England.
Meyer resisted the urge to start the 31-year-old for Saturday's match, opting for Ulster scrum-half Ruan Pienaar instead.
Two changes are in the starting XV with Duane Vermeulen taking over at number eight from the injured Pierre Spies and lock Juandre Kruger starting next to Eben Etzebeth in the middle row in place of Flip van der Merwe who moves to the bench.
The other change is on the bench where there is a return for experienced Toulouse prop Gurthro Steenkamp.
"Continuity has been key for us this year and that is why we've opted not to make too many changes to the team for Saturday's test against Argentina," Meyer said in a South African Rugby Union news release.
"It's great to have Duane back at number eight, while Juandre has been doing great work in the line-outs all season long. To have someone of the calibre of Flip on the bench, next to the experience Fourie and Gurthro bring to the team, is a great situation to be in."
Meyer believes Argentina will have learnt from their maiden Rugby Championship appearance last season and called for complete focus from his side.
"I think it was clear last year that the Argentinians are not in the Rugby Championship to make up the numbers, which means we will have to be focused on doing the little things right," he said.
"They've been together for a few weeks now and will be a tough opponent on Saturday."
Meyer also hinted his side would continue their more expansive game-plan that they have adopted this season that proved such a success in the June tournament.
"We've now done the hard work on the training pitch and I can see the players are keen to get back on to the field for a test," he said.
"Now we need to put into practice what we've been working on and continue where we left off against Samoa, looking for try-scoring opportunities in the process."
South Africa: 15-Willie le Roux, 14-Bjorn Basson, 13-JJ Engelbrecht, 12-Jean de Villiers, 11-Bryan Habana, 10-Morne Steyn, 9-Ruan Pienaar, 8-Duane Vermeulen, 7-Willem Alberts, 6-Francois Louw, 5-Juandre Kruger, 4-Eben Etzebeth, 3-Jannie du Plessis, 2-Adriaan Strauss, 1-Tendai Mtawarira
Replacements: 16-Bismarck du Plessis, 17-Gurthro Steenkamp, 18-Coenie Oosthuizen, 19-Flip van der Merwe, 20-Siya Kolisi, 21-Fourie du Preez, 22-Pat Lambie, 23-Jan Serfontein
- Sports & Recreation
- Heyneke Meyer
- Ruan Pienaar
- Juandre Kruger
- Duane Vermeulen
- Flip van der Merwe
- Pierre Spies