Golding, 30, toured Australia with the senior England squad three years ago, starting against the Australian Barbarians in Gosford. He joined the Falcons in 2006 following spells with Northampton and Rotherham, going on to make more than 130 first-team appearances.
"I have had a good career which has spanned 13 years, and I have enjoyed every minute of my time in the game," Golding told Falcons TV.
"It is a decision that I have not taken lightly, and it is one that I have taken my time over, talking to my wife and family.
"But I have got my head around it now, and it is something that I want to do. I am looking to go into business, and it will be a good challenge for me."
Golding's immediate aim will be to help Newcastle regain Aviva Premiership status.
They face Leeds Carnegie in the Championship play-off semi-finals next month, and are firm favourites for promotion.
- Sports & Recreation
- the Falcons