Wilson has been a virtual fixture on England's bench over the last four years, with 23 of his 29 caps coming as a replacement, but his extra power gave him the nod over Dan Cole for what is expected to be a stiff scrummaging examination from the Pumas.
Hartley comes in for Tom Youngs, who joins Cole on the bench and Marler replaces the injured Maku Vunipola. Alex Corbisiero, who missed last week's victory over Australia, is back on the bench.
"Joe Marler was excellent off the bench against Australia and merits his opportunity, as does David Wilson, who has been pushing hard for selection," Lancaster said in a statement. "Dylan gets a deserved chance at hooker with Tom Youngs on the bench after the safe arrival of his first child this morning. Rob Webber remains on standby."
The only change in the backs sees Ben Foden, in hot form for Northampton at fullback, start on the left wing after Marland Yarde, who played last week, and Christian Wade, both failed fitness tests on Thursday.
"Christian Wade was in contention for a start but his hamstring tightened up in training and unfortunately he hasn't recovered sufficiently in time to be considered for Saturday," Lancaster said.
"Marland Yarde failed a fitness test on a hip injury sustained last weekend this morning so Ben Foden gets his chance with Alex Goode on the bench. Ben has had a full week's training on the wing, he is a great finisher and in form so it's a great option for us."
Geoff Parling comes in for Dave Attwood among the replacements and Alex Goode comes on to the bench to cover the back three.
Although England convincingly beat Argentina away twice in June, both sides were considerably below full strength and Saturday's match will be a much more meaningful contest.
Despite struggling to make an impact in the Rugby Championship, where they lost all six games against the southern hemisphere big three, and in their first match under new coach Daniel Hourcade, the Pumas remain a tough nut to crack up front.
However, having dominated the scrum against Australia, England will want and expect to do the same in front of their own fans.
Wilson will be desperate to show that he is a viable option to start at tighthead, where Cole missed only one of England's 41 games before sitting out the Argentina tour to play for the British & Irish Lions.
That opened the door for Wilson to get two rare starts in Argentina and he also made his debut against the Pumas off the bench in 2009.
Hartley, who came off the bench to replace Youngs last week, gets the starting hooker berth hoping to eradicate the problematic lineout that hampered the team last week.
Youngs has been released from training after his wife gave birth to his first child earlier on Thursday but is still named among the replacements for Saturday's 1430 GMT kickoff.
Marler is something of a surprise starter at loosehead, with Lancaster opting to ease Corbisiero back into action after a lengthy layoff with a knee injury.
Corbisiero's reputation rocketed on the back of his displays for the Lions in their series victory over Australia and Marler will have to do something special to maintain the starting berth for next week's game against New Zealand.
Wade, Premiership player of the season in 2012-13, looked set for his second cap after Yarde was ruled out with a hip problem but suffered a tight hamstring, forcing Lancaster to turn to Foden.
Saturday's match will be Argentina's sixth at Twickenham, with their only victory coming in 2006. In all England have won 13 of the teams' 18 meetings, with one draw
15-Mike Brown, 14-Chris Ashton, 13-Joel Tomkins, 12-Billy Twelvetrees, 11-Ben Foden, 10-Owen Farrell, 9-Lee Dickson, 8-Billy Vunipola, 7-Chris Robshaw (captain), 6-Tom Wood, 5-Courtney Lawes, 4-Joe Launchbury, 3-David Wilson, 2-Dylan Hartley, 1-Joe Marler.
Replacements: 16-Tom Youngs, 17-Alex Corbisiero, 18-Dan Cole, 19-Geoff Parling, 20-Ben Morgan, 21-Ben Youngs, 22-Toby Flood, 23-Alex Goode.
- Sports & Recreation
- Tom Youngs
- Joe Marler
- Ben Foden
- Marland Yarde
- Alex Goode
- Alex Corbisiero