It is just the second ranking tournament victory of Fu's 15-year professional career, with his other coming at the Grand Prix back in 2007.
He came into the tournament ranked 18th in the world but will climb much higher when the new list is published next week - and he will also enjoy a huge confidence boost after a week which saw him beat world number four Shaun Murphy as well as Robertson.
The Hong Kong star shared the opening four frames of the match with world number one Robertson, with Fu producing breaks of 98 and 80 either side of Robertson's frame-winning contributions of 78 and 92.
Fu won three of the next four frames to pull clear before Robertson closed back to within a frame with a 57 in the ninth.
The next frame proved crucial, however: after Fu blew an early chance, Robertson made a break of 60 that seemed good enough to square the match.
But he faltered on frame ball, and Fu stepped in with a 58 to go 6-4 clear, then immediately made it 7-4 with a 70 in the next.
Again Robertson responded as he clinched two cagier frames, but Fu then won a tightly-contested 14th frame to make it 8-6 before finishing with a flourish thanks to a break of 102 to claim the title.
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