Trump was on the back foot immediately when a break of 85 saw Lisowski take the first frame 131-0. Though Trump responded with the next frame, Lisowski recorded a mammoth 131 to move two in front.
Breaks of 63, 80 and 94 saw the in-form Lisowski rattle off the final three frames to take his place in the last 16, where he will face Rory McLeod, who beat Matthew Stevens 5-2.
World number 15 Ali Carter made his way past Zhao Xintong, winning 5-2, while Shaun Murphy beat Andrew Higginson 5-3.
In the morning, Higgins, a four-time world champion, was 4-3 up against Robert Milkins following a masterful break of 116 in frame seven but lost both of the following two frames to be knocked out of the season's penultimate world ranking event.
The Scot took the first two frames, and three of the first four, as he built what appeared to be a commanding lead.
However, despite Milkins being unable to muster a break of more than 50 at any point during the contest, the world number 19 took the final two frames to reach the second round.
"I've been so low on confidence for the last few weeks," admitted Milkins, who now plays Stuart Bingham or Liang Wenbo.
"I'm struggling to see the angles on every shot. I nicked a few frames against John and luckily for me he didn't play well, although he played better than I did and probably deserved to win. The only frame I felt good in was the last one.
"I won a big frame to go 3-2, I made a good clearance because it was last-chance saloon. If it had been 4-1 I couldn't have won."
Meanwhile, Ebdon was defeated by Marcus Campbell, who now plays fellow Scot Graeme Dott in the last 16.
Ebdon was level at two frames all - a 67 in the second frame his highest break - but only won one of the final four frames as Campbell, who sits one place below him in 30th in the world rankings, made it through.
China Open first round results:
Judd Trump 3-5 Jack Lisowski
Ali Carter 5-2 Zhao Xintong
John Higgins 4-5 Robert Milkins
Peter Ebdon 3-5 Marcus Campbell
Matthew Stevens 2-5 Rory McLeod
Shaun Murphy 5-3 Andrew Higginson
Wildcard round results:
Dechawat Poomjaeng 5-2 Zhu Yinghui
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- Robert Milkins
- Andrew Higginson