"He has been provisionally suspended pending the results of the B sample," SKR, the country's governing body for the sport, spokesman Andrei Mitkov told Reuters.
Lisin, 33, failed the test after surprisingly winning the 10,000 metres at last month's national championships in the city of Kolomna.
He upset the favourites by lowering his personal best by more than 34 seconds.
If found guilty, Lisin would miss the 2014 Winter Olympics in the Russian Black Sea resort of Sochi.
- Sports & Recreation
- Ice Skating