Jamieson was responsible for contributing one third of Britain's swimming medals at the London 2012 Olympics, where Lochte won two golds, with silver in a British record in the 200m breaststroke.
But, while Rebecca Adlington who won Britain's two other medals at London 2012 has been staying away from competition, Jamieson was desperate to compete in Turkey and climb the podium again.
That looked like it would not be forthcoming after he sneaked into the final as the eighth and final qualifier from the heats with fellow Brit Andrew Willis the fourth quickest with an English record.
However that proved to mean little in the final as Jamieson, in lane eight but just like at the Olympics, recorded a British record of 2:03.00minutes to finish runner up behind Daniel Gyurta.
And, just like the two previous global international 200m breaststroke finals, Jamieson beat British team-mate Willis although at least this time he was not trailing in eighth position.
Indeed Willis lowered his own English record once again to 2:03.29 to place fifth, 1.94seconds off Gyurta, who won in a new championship record, and 0.21 off bronze medallist Viatcheslav Sinkevich.
Meanwhile multiple Olympic and world champion Lochte, despite already having three golds to his name in Turkey, produced his best swim yet to win the 200m medley in a new world record.
The 28-year-old American's intent was clear from the off and he led from start to finish to lower his own world record, set at the 2010 World Short Course Championships, by 0.45 to 1:49.63 for gold.
He left the rest of the field for dead with his winning margin over both silver medallist Daiya Seto, who claimed gold in the 400m medley, and bronze medallist Laszlo Cseh over three seconds.
"One of the reasons why I'm in this sport is because of the fans," the five-time Olympic champion told the BBC after handing his gold medal to a young boy who was waiting for an autograph.
"They have done so much with the cheering and the support throughout my years and just the love that they have given me I wanted to give back and putting a medal around their neck and seeing that glow on their face means the world to me," he added.
Jamieson's silver was the only British success story on the third night in Istanbul as three others fell agonisingly close to finishing on the podium including two more fifth-place finishes.
Lizzie Simmonds was the first Brit to compete in a final on night three in Turkey but, drawn in lane eight and sneaking into the final as the last qualifier, she could not force herself into the medals.
That was despite a strong start that saw the 21-year-old lead after the first 50m before dropping to second at the halfway stage, third at 150m and eventually fifth in 2:04.55, 0.40 off bronze.
Ukrainian Daryna Zevina took gold in 2:02.24 almost a full second ahead of American Bonnie Brandon in second while Spain's Duane Da Rocha Marce was third almost another second back.
Fellow Brit Jazmin Carlin thought she would be watching the women's 400m freestyle final from the stands after missing out by 0.02 in the heats however Katinka Hosszu pulling out handed her a swim.
And she narrowly missed out on collecting a remarkable medal also finishing fifth as Spaniard Melanie Costa Schmid beat Chloe Sutton by 0.02 to win gold with Lauren Boyle 0.04 behind in third.
Carlin lowered her own Welsh record to 4:02.45, 1.21 shy of the medal places, while Sophie Allen was sixth in the 100m medley final won by the in-form Hungarian Hosszu.
Allen could have done little more after setting a personal best of 59.03 as Hosszu set a new championship record of 58.49 to win her second title in Istanbul after gold in the 200m butterfly.
And she could not have done much more in the 100m breaststroke semi-finals prior to the 100m medley final either clocking a personal best of 1:06.42 but ranking outside the top eight in tenth.
On a busy night Allen then formed part of the British women's 4x100m medley relay quartet that missed out on medal by less than half a second as they finished fourth 3:51.85.
Allen, Georgia Davies, Jemma Lowe and Fran Halsall were beaten to the podium places by Denmark who won in 3:49.87 with Australia just over a second behind in second and America third.
Meanwhile Germany's two-time Olympic and world long course champion Britta Steffen claimed the first global short course title of her career with victory in the 100m freestyle in Istanbul.
Steffen touched home in 52.31 to beat American Megan Romano by 0.17 while Tang Yi of China was 0.25 further adrift to complete the podium in third.
There was another German winner in the men's 400m freestyle final as Paul Biedermann clocked 3:39.15 for gold ahead of China's Yun Hao and Denmark's Mads Glaesner.
In the women's 50m butterfly final Ying Lu beat Chinese team-mate Liuyang Jiao at the touch to win gold by 0.09 in 25.14 with Jeanette Ottesen Gray of Denmark claiming bronze.
And finally Russian Vladimir Morozov denied Olympic gold medallist and new European short course champion Florent Manaudou in the men's 50m freestyle, beating the Frenchman to gold by 0.33.
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