The seventh seed and 2012 champion blew kisses to the crowd after she claimed victory.
The warmup on Philippe Chatrier featured seventh seed Sharapova in fetching pink and Pervak in what looked like army camouflage trousers and jacket. Once the match began, her fighting spirit proved insufficient to trouble Sharapova.
Winner of the Stuttgart and Madrid claycourt titles, Sharapova went on the attack early, moving her left-handed compatriot around the court to break at the first opportunity.
But a wild volley at the net, with the whole court open, allowed Pervak to break back before the four-times grand slam champion finally emerged with a 4-1 lead and took the set in 27 minutes.
Sharapova broke early in the second set and while Pervak kept defeat at bay in her final service game, she handed Sharapova victory when she hit a return of serve too long.
Sharapova showed she had fully recovered from her thrashing by Ana Ivanovic in the third round in Rome, winning 92 per cent of points on first serve.
"It's good to play the first match and hopefully you'll be able to finish the match today with the weather conditions being as they are. It's always nice to get through," said Sharapova.
Ninth seed Dominika Cibulkova of Slovakia beat France's Virginie Razzano 7-5 6-0. There were also wins for seeds Sabine Lisicki, last year's losing Wimbledon finalist, Flavia Pennetta, the winner at Indian Wells this year, and Eugenie Bouchard of Canada.
French Open women's round one results
5-Petra Kvitova (Czech Republic) beat Zarina Diyas (Kazakhstan) 7-5 6-2
Marina Erakovic (New Zealand) beat Nadiya Kichenok (Ukraine) 6-2 6-1
Taylor Townsend (US) beat Vania King (U.S.) 7-5 6-1
Kurumi Nara (Japan) beat Anna Tatishvili (U.S.) 6-1 6-4
Karolina Pliskova (Czech Republic) beat Mathilde Johansson (France) 6-1 7-6(5)
Julia Goerges (Germany) beat Michelle Larcher de Brito (Portugal) 6-2 6-3
32-Elena Vesnina (Russia) beat Christina Mchale (U.S.) 7-6(0) 4-6 6-3
20-Alize Cornet (France) beat Ashleigh Barty (Australia) 6-2 6-1
Stefanie Voegele (Switzerland) beat Anna-Lena Friedsam (Germany) 6-7(3) 7-5 6-2
19-Samantha Stosur (Australia) beat Monica Puig (Puerto Rico) 6-1 6-1
Paula Ormaechea (Argentina) beat Romina Oprandi (Switzerland) 7-5 6-2
Pauline Parmentier (France) beat 17-Roberta Vinci (Italy) 3-6 6-3 6-2
18-Eugenie Bouchard (Canada) beat Shahar Peer (Israel) 6-0 6-2
Yaroslava Shvedova (Kazakhstan) beat Lauren Davis (U.S.) 3-6 7-5 6-4
9-Dominika Cibulkova (Slovakia) beat Virginie Razzano (France) 7-5 6-0
Tamira Paszek (Austria) beat Alison Van Uytvanck (Belgium) 6-2 7-6(5)
Timea Bacsinszky (Switzerland) beat Maryna Zanevska (Ukraine) 6-1 6-4
16-Sabine Lisicki (Germany) beat Fiona Ferro (France) 6-1 7-5
Mona Barthel (Germany) beat Karin Knapp (Italy) 6-4 6-0
7-Maria Sharapova (Russia) beat Ksenia Pervak (Russia) 6-1 6-2
12-Flavia Pennetta (Italy) beat Patricia Mayr-Achleitner (Austria) 6-2 6-2
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