The Red Bull driver got ahead of his McLaren rival for second place with less than two laps to go by running off track at the exit of the hairpin.
Vettel's move was illegal, according to the stewards, who imposed a post-race drive-through penalty on the German, meaning 20 seconds were added to his finishing time, relegating him to fifth place.
But Marko suggested that his driver had done nothing wrong, and laid the blame for the move at the feet of Button.
"[The punishment] is like the death penalty for stealing a chicken," Mark complained.
"The whole situation was triggered by Button, who left Sebastian no room and pushed him out.
"Sebastian had to move out to avoid a collision."
Marko compared the incident to a move on Vettel by Nico Rosberg in Bahrain - the Mercedes driver went unpunished for it - and argued that normally drivers making the pass are given the benefit of the doubt.
"That wasn't the case now [for Vettel]," Marko added. "There is a bad aftertaste. There is a double standard."