The 21-year-old, fourth last year in Copenhagen, finished 44 seconds ahead of the Australian Rohan Dennis whose compatriot Damien Howson was seven seconds slower in third.
The Katyusha rider, who was eighth recently at the Tour of Denmark time trial, completed the 36km course in 44:09 at an average speed of almost 49 km/h.
Dane Lasse Hansen, who won gold in the omnium at the Olympics, was only fourth while Brits Joe Perrett and Sam Harrison were 29th and 39th respectively.
The Russian ended the run of Anglophones who had won the last three editions - Australians Jack Bobridge (2009) and Luke Durbridge (2011) and American Taylor Phinney (2010).
1. Anton Vorobev (RUS) 44:09
2. Rohan Dennis (AUS) @ 44'
3. Damien Howson (AUS) 51'
4. Lasse Hansen (DEN) 53'
5. Rasmus Quaade (DEN) 1:02'
6. Marien Zmorka (UKR) 1:09'
7. Rasmus Sterebo (DEN) 1:25'
8. Jasha Sutterlin (GER) 1:28'
9. Sergey Chernetski (RUS) 1:37'
10. Tom Dumoulin (NED) 1:40'
- Rohan Dennis