The 36-year-old, who last month re-joined Chelsea following a two-season absence with spells in China and Turkey, made his 104th and final appearance for Les Elephants during the World Cup in Brazil.
"It is with much sadness that I have decided to retire from international football," Drogba said.
"I am very proud to have been captain of this team for eight years and to have contributed to placing my country on the world stage of football, taking part in three World Cups and two African Cup of Nations finals.
"I cannot convey enough thanks to the fans for all the love and support during these years. All my goals, all my caps, all our victories are for you.
"I also owe much gratitude to my team-mates - the players with whom I have shared all these emotions and I wish you all much success for the future and a very warm welcome to the new manager (Herve Renard)."
Chelsea skipper John Terry believes Chelsea will see the best of the forward this term.
He has approved of Drogba's return to Stamford Bridge on a one-year deal and insists he continues to show the combative spirit that marked his first eight-year spell at the club.
"Didier's still the same. He's been a nightmare to play against in training. He's still physically strong, sharp and hungry as well," Terry told Chelsea TV.
"It's important Didier is here because he brings that mentality of wanting to win every day and that rubs off on people like Kurt Zouma and the other young players he's playing against."
While Terry mourns the loss of Frank Lampard and Ashley Cole - "it just doesn't seem right to see them in different shirts" - he insists fans should be pleased with the business done in this window.
Diego Costa, Cesc Fabregas and Filipe Luis have been brought in at a cost of B£75million, in addition to Drogba's arrival on a free transfer, while defender Zouma and goalkeeper Thibaut Courtois have returned from loan spells.
"The club are evolving. One day we'll all be gone," Terry said.
"It's time for these players to continue to keep winning trophies for this club and keep the fans and owner happy.
"If I was a Chelsea fan I'd be impressed from what I have seen so far from Diego, Cesc, Filipe and all the boys that have come in like Kurt as well."
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- John Terry