The 33-year-old playmaker, who could have earned his 120th cap against the South American champions in Doha on Wednesday, had been examined by RFEF medical staff after Barca's 1-1 La Liga draw at Valencia on Sunday, the federation said on their Twitter feed.
The world and European champions have already lost Real Madrid midfielder Xabi Alonso because of a groin injury sustained in Saturday's 1-0 defeat at Granada.
Alonso was replaced in the squad by Atletico Madrid's Mario Suarez, a 25-year-old former youth international with his first call up. The federation did not say if anyone would be brought in to replace Xavi.
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