Global Firepower ranked 145 countries based on their military power — here are the top 25.
It said the US, China, and Russia rank highest, with some surprises further down.
Experts told Insider that ranking militaries is subjective and imperfect, and suggested things to bear in mind.
Global Firepower's 2023 Military Strength Ranking ranks 145 nations' militaries, weighing a host of different factors like the volume of sophistication of its equipment, its finances, geography, and resources.
The ranking considers factors including the amount of military equipment and troops each country has, as well as their financial standing, geography, and available resources, information which may be imperfect. Notably, the ranking only evaluates militaries from a conventional standpoint, overlooking a country's capacity for nuclear strike.
It purportedly uses more than 60 factors to generate a PowerIndex score, with a score closer to zero indicating a more powerful military. (Global Firepower doesn't explain exactly how the factors are weighed against each other or the workings of their "in-house formula.")
Below is a rundown of the 25 top militaries, per this ranking, with some information on each nation.
It's worth noting that comparing militaries is subjective, and putting together a true and accurate ranking of global military power is almost impossible given the myriad of factors required for a proper analysis. Experts don't hold the Global Firepower list in much esteem, and two told Insider its value is limited. Nonetheless, it's an interesting thought experiment.
Alex Kokcharov, a risk analyst with S&P Global Market Intelligence, told Insider that it reflects "perceptions rather than the actual picture." A lot of information is not available from open sources, he noted.
Dr Matthew Ford, an ex-West Point fellow and Associate Professor at the Swedish Defence University, made a similar point. The data, he said, misses factors like a military's training and education, its intelligence chops, or the effectiveness of its command structure.
"Many of these things are difficult parameters to quantify because they are probably known to military planners in these specific countries but not necessarily to outside observers," he said.
With those limitations in mind, here is how the top countries stack up according to this attempt at ranking global military might, which has been put out annually for nearly two decades:
While 25th overall, with a PowerIndex score of 0.3881, Global Firepower ranked Germany in the top 20 globally in areas including total aircraft fleet strength, helicopter strength, and its total armored fighting vehicle fleet.
It said that as of January 2023, Germany had around 601 aircraft, 266 tanks, and 287 helicopters.
The country also had the fifth-highest defense budget, of around $52.3 billion, behind only the US, China, Russia, and India.
It also benefits from being part of NATO. In the wake of Russia's full-scale invasion of Ukraine, it pledged to increase defense spending to hit the alliance's target of 2% of GDP.
Global Firepower ranked Thailand in the top 20 in terms of total available population fit for military service, and total available active military manpower.
As of January 2023, Thailand's available manpower was over 36 million people, Global Firepower said, resulting in a PowerIndex score of 0.3738.
Understandably, given its long coastlines, Thailand has a strong navy, even though it has no aircraft carriers. Its total naval assets (292), including six corvettes and seven frigates, are the 8th largest in the world, Global Firepower said.
Serving in the armed forces is a national duty of all Thai citizens, according to the kingdom's constitution.
Global Firepower ranked Taiwan first in terms of total available reserve military manpower, with around 1.5 million reserve personnel as of April 2023, the equivalent of 6.4% of the country's population.
Taiwan, which was given a PowerIndex score of 0.3639, also ranked highly in terms of air power, with 285 fighter aircraft and 91 attack helicopters, both the 8th largest fleets of those kinds in the world, according to Global Firepower.
The Taiwanese defence budget increased from $15.3 billion in 2022 to $19.9 billion in 2023, according to a recent GlobalData report.
China has claimed Taiwan as its own territory since 1949, and Western officials have long feared that China could try to take the island by force.
The GlobalData report said Taiwan is working with the US to bulk up its military with advanced systems like F-16 jets, Patriot missiles, and Abrams tanks.
China launched military drills around Taiwan in August of 2023, citing what it called "provocations" and "collusion" by between people in Taiwan and its foreign allies.
22: Saudi Arabia
Global Firepower ranked Saudi Arabia second when it came to its total aerial tanker aircraft fleet strength, and in the top 20 in areas including total helicopter strength, total oil production, natural gas production, and total available active military manpower.
The country had 22 aerial tanker aircraft as of January 2023, suiting its position as the second-biggest oil producer in the world, after the US.
Its defense budget of $46 billion was also the eighth highest in the world, reflecting its ambition to beef up its military through aggressive spending.
Global Firepower gave the country a PowerIndex score of 0.3626.
Global Firepower ranked Spain as having the 21st most powerful military in the world in 2023.
It also called it a top-20 power in areas including its total transport fleet strength, total fighter/interceptor aircraft strength, number of submarines, and its number of available ports.
Spain is also one of the few countries in the world with a helicopter carrier, and its fleet of 11 frigates places it 7th globally in that category. The country saw a historic increase in military budget in 2023, reaching €12.5 billion from around €9.8 billion in 2022.
The country, which was given a PowerIndex score of 0.3556, also had 140 fighter aircraft and two submarines as of January 2023.
Global Firepower ranked Poland in the top 20 in areas including its total helicopter strength, its armored fighting vehicle fleet strength, its total number of mine and countermine warfare ships, and its total number of submarine craft.
It said that as of December 2022, Poland had 208 helicopters and more than 50,000 armored fighting vehicles, giving it a PowerIndex score of 0.3406.
The country, which shares a border with Ukraine, has made bolstering the Polish armed forces a priority, spending the equivalent of 2.4% of its GDP on the military in 2022.
After being dominated by the Soviet Union for much of the 20th century, Poland and its neighbors have made it a priority to prepare for a potential future conflict with Russia.
It has also been one of the most generous donors of military equipment to Ukraine in its fight with Russia.
Prime Minister Mateusz Morawieck announced a further "unprecedented effort" to ratchet up military spending to 4% of its GDP in 2023.
Global Firepower ranked Vietnam in the top 10 in areas including total available active military manpower and its fleet of self-propelled artillery.
It said that as of January 2023, Vietnam had more than 53 million people who count as available military manpower, with an estimated 470,000 active military personnel (9th highest in the world), in addition to 2.5 million reserves.
It gave Vietnam a PowerIndex score of 0.2855.
The Vietnamese defense market budget rose to $6.3 billion in 2023, and is predicted to grow by more than 6% between 2024 and 2028, GlobalData reports.
Eighteenth overall, Israel was ranked by Global Firepower in the top 20 in areas like its total fighter/interceptor aircraft strength, its total aircraft fleet strength, and its total available reserve military manpower.
It said that Israel, which it gave a PowerIndex score of 0.2757, had 601 military aircraft as of January 2023, with 241 of those being fighters. It also had 2,200 tanks, as well as a stock of 650 pieces of self-propelled artillery.
Given its historic conflicts with its neighbors and with armed groups like Hamas, the Israel Defense Forces hold a prominent place in its society.
Many men and women are compelled to complete national service, giving it a relatively large military for its population of 9 million.
Low-level clashes around the occupied territories are frequent. Israel's famed Iron Dome air-defense system helps repel rocket attacks from around its borders.
With US funding included, Israel's defense budget is on track to increase from $19.3 billion in 2019 to $23.6 billion in 2023, with an estimated 2% rise between 2024 and 2028, per a recent GlobalData report.
Global Firepower ranked Iran in the top 10 in areas including its total combat tank fleet strength, total self-propelled Multiple Launch Rocket Projector vehicle fleet strength, and its total available active military manpower.
It said that as of January 2023, Iran had more than 4,000 tanks and more than 1,000 rocket launcher systems. Its active military personnel of 575,000 was the seventh largest in the world.
Despite economic challenges like US sanctions and a "chronically weak and undercapitalised" banking system, Iran has earmarked a fifth of its annual budget to defense in 2023.
Overall Global Firepower gave the country a PowerIndex score of 0.2712.
Iran has for decades been seeking nuclear weapons, a program which the US and other Western nations have vowed to stop, hammering Iran with sanctions.
Global Firepower said Australia has the sixth-highest defense budget in the world, and ranked it in the top 10 in areas including its total aerial-tanker aircraft fleet strength, total number of helicopter carrier warships, total natural gas production, and its number of roadways, airports, and major ports.
While its active military personnel was just 60,500 (61st largest), the country has two helicopter carriers (4th) and six aerial tanker aircraft, making its fleet the eighth largest in the world.
Australia has a public strategy to spend about $190 billion on new defense systems in the ten years leading up to 2030. In May, the country earmarked about $29 billion for its 2023-24 fiscal defense budget "for the first time", according to the Australian Defense Magazine.
As of September 2021, the country committed to strengthening its alliance with the UK and the US through the AUKUS pact, focused on modernizing its submarine fleet.
Global Firepower gave Australia a PowerIndex score of 0.2567.
Global Firepower said Ukraine increased its ranking compared to last year due to its response to Russia's invasion, and the military help, including weapons, it is getting from its allies.
Russia invaded Ukraine in February 2022, expecting to take the country in a matter of days. Instead, it was pushed back to the east, where both sides are now grinding it out on the battlefield, with no signs the conflict will end any time soon.
Global Firepower ranked Ukraine 10th overall for its number of self-propelled Multiple Launch Rocket Projectors, saying that as of April 2023 it had 647 of them. It gave the country a PowerIndex score of 0.2516.
A year and a half into the war, Ukrainian Armed Forces grapple with two major challenges when it comes to training and deploying new soldiers, according to a recent report from the nonpartisan Congressional Research Service.
The report cites a lack of "fully developed professional" corps to train and command new recruits as well the challenge to "balance" the time spent training recruits on performing complex operations and operating sophisticated weaponry while ensuring adequate personnel are deployed on the front lines.
Close to 500,000 Russian and Ukrainian soldiers have been killed or injured since the start of the war, US officials told The New York Times.
Global Firepower ranked Egypt in the top 10 in areas including total available active military manpower, available paramilitary force strength, and total available reserve manpower, as well as the strength of its aircraft fleet.
It said Egypt had more than 1,000 military aircraft as of January 2023, and that it had 300,000 people who can be considered part of its paramilitary forces. The Egyptian army topped the list of Arab countries, the report added.
A group of 11 US senators urged the US to withhold $320 million in military aid to Egypt for a third consecutive year "due to a lack of necessary progress on human rights" under President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi.
Global Firepower gave Egypt a PowerIndex score of 0.2224.
Global Firepower ranked Indonesia in the top 5 worldwide in areas including its total available population fit for military service, total available population reaching military age on an annual basis, and its total number of offshore patrol boats and corvette warships.
It said that, as of January 2023, more than 112 million Indonesians were eligible for military service, 40.7% of the country's population.
The country's military announced it would relocate ASEAN's first-ever joint military drills away from the South China Sea amid territorial disputes in the region.
China claims sovereignty over the sea, as well as the area's estimated 11 billion barrels of undiscovered oil and 190 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, putting it at odds with competing claimants in the region.
Global Firepower gave Indonesia a PowerIndex score of 0.2221.
Global Firepower ranked Brazil in the top 5 in areas including its available population that is fit for military service, its total transport fleet strength, and its number of total serviceable airports.
The country has over 4,000 airports, the second-highest in the world, as well as 17 ports and trade terminals, the fifth highest in this category.
Global Firepower said that Brazil had more than 87 million people fit for military service as of January 2023, 40.3% of the country's population.
In the wake of anti-government riots on January 8, 2023, Brazil's President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva vowed to crack down on all military officials who sought to overturn Brazil's 2022 election results. Lula fired the country's army chief upon taking office in January.
Global Firepower gave Brazil a PowerIndex score of 0.2151.
Global Firepower said Turkey is "undoubtedly a rising military power, relying evermore on local industry to satisfy equally-local defense requirements on land, on sea, and in the air. "
It ranked the country in the top 10 in areas including aircraft fleet strength, transport fleet strength, and helicopter strength.
It said Turkey had 1,065 military aircraft as of January 2023, giving it a PowerIndex score of 0.2016.
Turkey is one of five NATO member countries that host US nuclear weapons as part of the alliance's nuclear-sharing deal.
The country has chosen a difficult balancing act since the beginning of Russia's full-scale invasion of Ukraine, by providing Ukraine with combat drones and keeping close ties with Russian President Vladimir Putin.
While Turkey has mediated diplomatic deals like the grain initiative and prisoner swaps, it has failed to broker a ceasefire or bring both countries to the negotiating table.
Global Firepower ranked Italy in the top 10 in areas including its aerial tanker aircraft fleet, total helicopter strength, attack aircraft strength, and its total number of aircraft carrier warships.
It said Italy had 404 helicopters, including 58 attack helicopters, and two aircraft carrier warships as of January 2023.
A recent GlobalData report forecasts an increase in spending from $31.6 billion to $38.5 billion between 2024 and 2028.
It gave Italy a PowerIndex score of 0.1973.
Global Firepower ranked France ninth overall. The European nation was in the top 10 in areas including its total helicopter fleet and number of destroyer warships, as well as its total transport fleet strength.
France is also one of the few nations to field an aircraft carrier — the Charles de Gaulle. It also has nuclear weapons.
Global Firepower said France had 438 helicopters, including 69 attack helicopters, and 10 destroyer warships as of January 2023, giving it a PowerIndex score of 0.1848.
France has traditionally had a strong presence in the Sahel region of Africa, where it used to have several colonies.
In recent years, it has started to wind down its presense there, though approximately 5,000 French soldiers are still stationed on bases across Africa. Meanwhile Russia and China are competing for influence.
Japan still has a powerful military despite having renounced the ability to wage war in the aftermath of its defeat in WWII.
Japan's constitution heavily limits its ability to use force overseas, and its military is accordingly known as the Japan Self-Defense Forces.
Global Firepower ranked Japan in the top 10 for its aircraft fleet strength, total helicopter strength, and armored fighting vehicle fleet strength.
An island nation, Japan was the highest-ranked nation when it came to major ports, and with four helicopter carriers it ranked second in that category, as well as second (behind only the US) when it came to the strength of its special-mission aircraft fleet.
In recent decades Japan has only invested around 1% of its GDP in defense, but more recently began to change its posture.
In 2016, Japan loosened restrictions on how its military could be used to allow limited participation in overseas missions deemed to be "collective self-defense."
The move was driven by its near neighbors North Korea and China both appearing more belligerent.
More recently, it announced plans to hike defense spending to 2% of GDP, which would give it the world's third-largest defense budget.
Global Firepower said that Japan had more than 1,400 military aircraft, and more than 111,000 vehicles as of January 2023, with a PowerIndex score of 0.1711.
Pakistan rose from ninth overall in 2022 to seventh on the list in 2023.
While Pakistan had more than 3,700 tanks, 1,400 military aircraft, nine submarines, and 654,000 active military personnel as of January 2023, Global Firepower said its rise was also due to this year's rankings having a bigger focus on natural resources and shared borders.
Pakistan shares borders with Afghanistan, China, India, and Iran, putting it in a tense part of the world.
Global Firepower ranked Pakistan in the top 10 in areas including its total available population fit for military service, total available active military manpower, and total aircraft fleet strength, with a PowerIndex score of 0.1694.
6: South Korea
The strength of South Korea's military is no surprise giving its decades-old tensions with North Korea.
Since 2021, North Korea has conducted around 90 strategic cruise missile tests, with South Korea its most obvious target in a real conflict.
Historically tense and hostile, relations between North Korea and the United States have worsened up in recent years, as the US has deployed an anti-missile system and 29,000 troops in South Korea under a mutual defense pact.
Global Firepower ranked South Korea in the top five for its aircraft fleet strength, armored fighting vehicle fleet strength, and its helicopter strength. It said the Asian nation had more than 133,000 vehicles and 739 helicopters, including 112 attack helicopters, as of January 2023.
Overall, it gave South Korea a PowerIndex score of 0.1505.
5: The UK
Global Firepower said the UK's position was boosted by its strengths in manpower and airpower, as well as its strong financial position.
"It is also one of the few powers to operate more than one aircraft carrier," it added. Its carriers, HMS Queen Elizabeth and HMS Prince of Wales, are among the newest in the world.
It also has nuclear weapons, deployed via its fleet of submarines.
Dr Ford told Insider he found it "strange" that Britain is ranked fifth in Global Firepower because its army lacks the "armed mass forces" that China, Russia, India, and the United States have.
Britain is the second largest donor to Ukraine behind the US, having committed $4.6 billion in military aid since the start of the war. It continues to be a major contributor to NATO, meeting its pledge to spend at least 2% of GDP on defense and aiming for 2.5% by 2030.
Global Firepower ranked the UK in the top 10 in areas including its total number of available ports and its total aerial tanker aircraft fleet strength, giving the country a PowerIndex score of 0.1435.
India's strength lies in the size of its population. Global Firepower ranked India second for available manpower, total available active military manpower, and paramilitary force strength.
It said India's available manpower was more than 653 million people, 47% of the country's population, as of January 2023. It also said that India had almost 1.5 million active military personnel.
India has been engaged in military clashes with China over its shared border. While China claims some 90,000 square km of territory in India's northeast, India says China occupies 38,000 square km of its territory in the Aksai Chin plateau.
After three years of 19 rounds of corps-commander level meetings, the two countries said they "agreed to resolve the remaining issues in an expeditious manner," but fell short of making specific concessions.
Global Firepower gave India a PowerIndex score of 0.1025.
China has grown its military power fast in recent years as it takes a more assertive role in world affairs.
Global Firepower ranked China first for available manpower and for the strength of its naval fleet.
China has a "distinct advantage economically and by way of sheer manpower and has placed a decided focus on increasing (primarily through local means) naval, airpower, and land warfare capabilities," Global Firepower said in its latest ranking.
If the trend continues, it added, China "will become the primary global military adversary to the United States."
Tensions are simmering around Taiwan where China launched military drills in August of 2023 as a "stern warning", citing what it called "provocation" and "collusion" between "separatists" and "foreign forces".
It has also stoked regional tensions by claiming the South China Sea as its own territory and establishing a military presence on many of its small islands.
According to Global Firepower, China has available military manpower of more than 761 million people as of April 2023, along with 50 destroyer warships and 78 submarines, among many other military assets.
Global Firepower gave China a PowerIndex score of 0.0722.
While its military's reputation has taken a hit since the invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, Russia retained its second-place spot on Global Firepower's ranking.
Russia's invasion of Ukraine "showcased key limitations in Russian military capabilities despite its quantitative manpower and material advantage over neighboring Ukraine," Global Firepower said. It added that China was moving closer to taking the runnerup spot.
Global Firepower ranked Russia second in areas including total aircraft fleet strength and total transport fleet strength. It said that, as of January 2023, Russia had more than 4,100 military aircraft.
Russia has faced a number of military setbacks since it launched its invasion of Ukraine, losing considerable quantities of equipment — notably tanks.
Its failure to quickly conquer Ukraine — a much weaker adversary — drove many to reassess their opinion of its military capability. As of August 2023, Russia was mostly on the defensive in Ukraine, holding back its enemies with a formidable network of trenches and minefields.
Despite its losses on the ground, Russia's air force and navy largely avoided damage. Russia also has the world's largest stockpile of nuclear weapons.
Overall, Global Firepower gave Russia a PowerIndex score of 0.0714.
1: The US
The US military retained its undisputed place at the top of the ranking, although China's efforts have narrowed the gap over the years.
Global Firepower said the US took the top spot as it "showcases commanding numbers in key material, financial, and resource categories."
The US was given a PowerIndex score of 0.0712. The nation leads the world technologically, it said.
The US ranks first in many areas of Global Firepower's ranking, with 92 destroyers and 11 aircraft carriers in its fleets. Its air power includes 13,300 aircraft, and 983 attack helicopters, as of April 2023, comfortably the largest in the world.
It also had by far the largest defense budget, in excess of $750 billion, more than triple that of China in second place.
In response to Russia's invasion of Ukraine in 2022, the US deployed an additional 20,000 troops to Europe, bringing the total to more than 100,000 soldiers across the continent. The US is the largest provider of military assistance to Ukraine, having committed more than $42 billion in security assistance since the start of Russia's first invasion in 2014.
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