Jackson had to be dragged off the pitch by manager Mauricio Pochettino after the confrontation with Patterson following Sunday’s 2-0 defeat at Goodison Park.
Referee Michael Oliver saw the incident and chose not to send Jackson off, clearing him of any follow-up action.
It means he will be available to face Sheffield United in a high-pressure match at Stamford Bridge on Saturday.
Pochettino has acknowledged that Jackson is struggling to adapt to life at Chelsea, highlighting how he has picked up seven yellow cards already this season, more than any other player in the Premier League.
Armando Broja started at Everton in place of the Senegal international, who came on in the 67th minute on Merseyside.
But neither player could score and Jackson missed two big chances, leading to another disappointing defeat.
"Maybe we need to do something, some movement that is a thing to analyse with the sporting director, the owner and to change the dynamic and to improve in the second part of the season because we need to be more aggressive. It is not only to dominate and play well," the Argentine said.