Head coach Tite has named a 26-man squad for international friendlies against Ghana and Tunisia later in September, including 11 Premier League players but Arsenal's much-vaunted stars have been snubbed.
Among the Premier League players included are Tottenham striker Richarlison, who has often started ahead of Jesus for the Selecao, and Manchester United's new £84m forward Anthony.
Explaining Jesus' absence, Tite appeared to allay fears the Gunners' World Cup spot was at risk.
He told reporters: "This squad is to give opportunities to others to show themselves. [Jesus] is competing for spot and he is in a big moment."
However, Martinelli's spot is far from concrete, with Tite adding: "[Fellow absentee] Coutinho is an extraordinary player. Gabriel Jesus too. We are talking about David Neres, Martinelli [vying for a spot]. It's very difficult."
Taking Jesus' spot is Flamengo striker Pedro, who is top scorer in this season's Copa Libertadores with 12 goals. Gabriel's spot was likely taken by first-time call-ups for Juventus' Gleison Bremer and Roma's Roger Ibanez.
Goalkeepers: Alisson (Liverpool), Ederson (Manchester City), Weverton (Palmeiras)
Defenders: Danilo, Alex Sandro, Gleison Bremer (all Juventus), Alex Telles (Sevilla), Thiago Silva (Chelsea), Eder Militao (Real Madrid), Marquinhos (Paris Saint-Germain), Roger Ibanez (Roma)
Midfielders: Casemiro, Fred (both Manchester United), Fabinho (Liverpool), Lucas Paqueta (West Ham), Bruno Guimaraes (Newcastle), Everton Ribeiro (Flamengo)
Forwards: Neymar (Paris Saint-Germain), Richarlison (Tottenham), Roberto Firmino (Liverpool), Vinicius Junior, Rodrygo (both Real Madrid), Antony (Manchester United), Raphinha (Barcelona), Matheus Cunha (Atletico Madrid), Pedro (Flamengo).